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Articifical Intelligence: Deep Blue v. Kasparov

INTRODUCTION

The questions of artificial intelligence and singularity have been asked since the days of the creation of the computer. Will these silicon machines one day be more intelligent than humans, the most intelligent life form known? Chess has long been known as the game of intellectuals and naturally caught the attention of computer scientists who wanted to see if computers could beat humans in a game of pure intellect. In the 1970-80s, it was unknown whether computers could dominate humans in chess. Then in 1989, IBM’s Deep Thought defeated David Levy, known for his bet in 1968 that no computer could beat him in the next ten years. Levy held his bet to 1978, but admitted that computers would soon surpass his strength. Deep Thought was still not even near World Championship level, and Gary Kasparov, arguably the best chess player in history (World Champion 1985-200) proved it right by crushing Deep Thought 2-0 in their match. Later in 1996, IBM’s Deep Blue (Deep Thought’s successor) made history as it won the first game in a match against reigning world champion at standard tournament time controls. However, humans were still better computers and Kasparov fought back winning 4-2. It was not until May 11, 1997 that computers made history and beat the world chess champion in a standard six-game match. The Kasparov-Deep Blue Rematch is a turning point in the history of computers and shows that super-computers will be able to “think” deeper than humans (if not, someday dominate humans) through the evolution/growth of computers, details on chess, and viewpoints of general society.

 

PROCESS PAPER

Computer Evolution: Artificial Intelligence

Deep Blue vs. Garry Kasparov

Kevin Huang

Junior Division

Individual Website

The subjects of computation and chess have always been interesting to me. Chess involves strategical thinking and planning (as well as some intelligence) which I enjoy doing. Computers are a huge role in the Modern Era as well as in society, improving the life of the individual. My topic combines the computer world and chess as part of the theoretical concept of artificial intelligence. This incorporates the science of computer evolution including principles of computer science, engineering, and physics, which also appeal to me.

My research started at school when I first browsed through online databases seeking the information I needed. Continuing my research, I found a lot of useful secondary sources on the databases. Also my research lead me to the IBM website, which had an archive of useful articles concerning the Deep Blue versus Kasparov match. From helpful and official websites, I was able to get a lot of facts and background on this event. I also looked at books concerning the match, interviews and a documentary giving me perspective on some opinions of the match from a local library. Lastly, I was able to conduct an interview with a person who had worked at the Deep Blue vs. Kasparov matches, which enriched my understanding of the event.

I chose a website as the best way to present my topic. In order to express the needs of my project, a website could convey detailed information to the audience as well as remaining interesting and interactive. Also, a website can display many different sources making a more versatile relative to other projects. I created my website by categorizing my research into three sections: Before the turning point, the turning point, and after the turning point. In each section, I explained the background and information while focusing on my primary controls. I also provided the information in different forms by using different sources in order to make interesting and appealing.

My topic is an effective liaison between my event and turning points in history. For many years, people have discussed the idea of artificial intelligence, and the day when machines dominate the world and are superior to humans. The second Deep Blue vs. Kasparov match was an important turning point in history of computer evolution because from then on, computers were viewed as better processors than humans and that humans will eventually be inferior. In my event, chess was used as a method of a human versus computer setting. Before the second match, computers appeared weaker and humans still had the edge. But afterwards, it became very clear, computers were going to become better and better. It was an important event that adjusted the public’s viewpoint towards computers and their application. Artificial intelligence is one step closer.

 

INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPT

NM Dan Heisman

Interviewer: Kevin Huang

Dan Heisman (1950-) is a United States Chess Federation National Master and author. He is a member of the International Computer Games Association and worked at both Deep Blue versus Garry Kasparov matches (1996 and 1997).

KH: I have some questions concerning the Kasparov vs. Deep Blue matches.

DH: Yes, can’t imagine there are reasons I would not answer any reasonable question. Most common question: I suppose you have read my comments that respected scientist Ken Thompson, who invented Unix, was watching Deep Blue’s monitor on every move of the 2nd match, and when the controversy broke came out to where I was working and told the assembled group that Deep Blue not only had analyzed the controversial Be4 before it played it but, to that point in the match, had analyzed every move it had played on the monitor before it made it. And the next year (1998) Fritz (Kasparov’s own training software) played Be4 in that positions within seconds on my compatively slow PC, so it was hardly an impossible move for a computer to find. Lots more on both matches, but this is the question most commonly asked of me…

KH: My main questions are about the opinions of the match by people who worked there. Could you describe primary role during the matches?

DH: In the first match here in Philly I was the official “scorekeeper” (provided the ongoing recording of the games for the ICGA in support of the host ACM) but as the match proceeded I became the unofficial liaison between the chess community and the general media as I had the background in math, computer science/chess programming, and chess skills, plus the communication to answer their questions. In the 2nd match I was hired (well, allowed to volunteer) for IBM to work in their special guest area explaining what was happening to their VIP guests (that’s where we chatted with Ken Thompson). Got to talk to the programmers of other programs, GMs, all kinds of good stuff. In the final round I got to stay in the press area (interviewed by NY Times and the Today Show!) and attend the final press conference.

KH: 1) What do you think is the overall significance of the matches (primarily the 2nd match)?

2) After Deep Blue won Kasparov in 1997; do you think it was important event in the history of computer evolution and their dominance to humans?

These questions are controversial and I would like to hear your opinion on these events.

DH: Very difficult to give complex question answers, these are just my opinion:

1) This is all opinion but it marked the perception that computers could do some things better that previously mankind had hopefully thought were our provence. For the chess world it showed that computers could not only help GMs but surpass them. It paved the way for PC/human matches until the PC engines got too good for GMs too (about 8 years later). It also dried up some possible sponsor money as some corporations erroneously but understandably thought chess was “solved” so there was no point in supporting it. Luckily this view has modified somewhat over the past few years.

2) This was no onset of the Singularity (if you are not familiar with that, Google “Singularity Kurzweil”). Deep Blue was not a general purpose AI that played chess well but just a very specifically programmed hardware chess chip that was very fast for its day. Although the perception of some was that it was some sort of AI breakthrough, from a computer science standpoint that was hardly true. Jeopardy’s Watson is another step in that direction; a little more built for wider usage, but still fairly narrowly programmed.

KH: Based upon my research, I heard that Kasparov accused IBM on cheating and demanded a rematch, but IBM denied and dismantled Deep Blue. What do you think of Kasparov’s accusations and IBM’s actions? And why did IBM refuse a rematch and dismantle Deep Blue?

DH: This is again not a short answer (you can read Dr. Hsu’s book). Ken Thompson, inventor of Unix and a well-respected computer scientist, was hired to watch Deep Blue’s monitor for the 2nd match. As soon as he heard the accusations, he came out to the area where others and I were watching and said Deep Blue had analyzed Be4 before it played it (and every other move it played to that point, as well). And by 1998, the next year, the PC program Fritz played Be4 (the supposed “cheating move” for me rather quickly on my comparatively slow PC. So for any number of reasons Deep Blue team did not cheat. IBM was interested in making money; when Kasparov dissed them, they did not wish to enrich him by playing again. But that was not the point; Deep Blue was created with the sole purpose of defeating the World Champion, whoever it was. Once they achieved their goal and made lots of money (stock went up), they were not really interested in sponsoring further computer science interest in chess – that was a side effect, not the company’s goal. Deep Blue was very fast for its day, but within a short time even PC programs were beating the World Champions so it is no stretch that Deep Blue won, in retrospective. Again, you can read Dr. Hsu’s book “Inside Deep Blue” for more info. Take it from me: IBM did not cheat, but they had no great desire to keep the Deep Blue team around and pay them once they had met their goals, either.

KH: Thank you for your time.

 

Annotated and Image Bibliography

Primary Sources:

“Behind Deep Blue.” Amazon. Amazon, n.d. Web. 3 Feb. 2013.

<http://www.amazon.com/Hsu-Feng-Hsiungs-Behind-Deep-Blue/dp/

B008W0DYWQ&docid=vd_Q-dugkF4n2M&itg=1&imgurl=http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/
I/515SQ7gN5NL.SL500_SS500.jpg&w=500&h=500&ei=hbYOUcGnFYz00QGAp4CQDA&zoom=1&ved=1t:3588,r:14,s:0,i:123&iact=rc&dur=1536&sig=108495353558782364245&page=1&tbnh=173&tbnw=173&start=0&ndsp=24&tx=95&ty=83>.

This photograph shows Feng-Hsiung Hsu’s book, Behind Deep Blue.

Campbell, Murray. Interview by Wired News. 11 May 2007.

In this interview, Murray Campbell discussed the future of supercomputing, the Deep Blue Rematch, as well as the computer Deep Blue. Specific comments were provided explaining why the match captured the public imagination to a great degree.

Campbell, Murray, Joseph Hoane Jr., and Feng-hsiung Hsu. “Deep Blue.”

Artificial Intelligence 134 (2002): n. pag. Print.

This journal by the IBM team officially outlines the entire Deep Blue project. It includes, the introduction, system overview, search processes and evaluation functions.

“Chess Match Between Garry Kasparov and Deep Thought, New York City.”

Profimedia. Profimedia, n.d. Web. 3 Feb. 2013.
<http://www.profimedia.si/picture/chess-match-between-garry-kasparov-and-deep/
0037919203/>.

This photograph displays a scene during a game of Deep Blue vs. Kasparov.

ChessQuotes.com. ChessQuotes.com, 2009. Web. 2 Feb. 2013.

<http://www.chessquotes.com/>.

This website contains original quotes by Kasparov describing chess, himself, computers, and also the Deep Blue vs. Kasparov matches.

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Feb. 2013. <http://www.businessinsider.com/
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Photograph of the IBM Deep Blue team. It displays all members that were part of Deep Blue’s development.

“Deep Blue and Kasparov.” Varsity Blogs. Varsity, 2011. Web. 2 Feb. 2013.

<http://blogs.varsity.co.uk/varsitech/the-humane-machine>.

This photograph displays a scene during a game of Deep Blue vs. Kasparov.

“Deep Blue.” Wikipedia. Wikipedia, n.d. Web. 2 Feb. 2013.

<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deep_Blue_(chess_computer)>.

This is a photograph of IBM’s Deep Blue supercomputer (outside).

“Deep Blue Vs. Kasparov, Game 6.” Forbes. Forbes, 22 Aug. 2011. Web. 3 Feb.

  1. <http://www.forbes.com/sites/davidewalt/2011/08/22/
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This photograph shows Kasparov after he resigns the sixth game against Deep Blue (Rematch).

Eckert, J. Presper. Interview by Alexander Randall. 23 Feb. 2006.

Interview by Randall to Eckert on ENIAC the first electronic computer, its functions, plans with ENIAC, before ENIAC, and beyond ENIAC.

“Feng-hsiung Hsu.” Chess Programming Wiki. Wikispaces, n.d. Web. 3 Feb. 2013.

<http://chessprogramming.wikispaces.com/Feng-hsiung+Hsu>.

This photograph shows Fend-hsiung Hsu, an important figure in the creation of Deep Thought and Deep Blue.

Garry Kasparov. Garri Kasparov. Mika Kaakinen, 2012. Web. 2 Feb. 2013.

<http://www.kolumbus.fi/mika.kaakinen/kasparov_englanti.html>.

This photograph displays Garry Kasparov (former world chess champion 1985-2000).

Garry Kasparov. OPTIMUM PERFORMANCE TECHNOLOGIES. Blogger, 20 Jan. 2008.

Web. 3 Feb. 2013. <http://optimumperformancetechnologies.blogspot.com/2008/01/
what-i-had-learned-from-gary-kasparov.html>.

This photograph displays Garry Kasparov (former world chess champion 1985-2000).

Garry Kasparov. The New York Times. The New York Times Company, n.d. Web. 2

Feb. 2013. <http://topics.nytimes.com/topics/reference/timestopics/people/k/garry_kasparov/index.html>.

This photograph displays Garry Kasparov.

Heisman, Dan. Personal interview. 12 Dec. 2012.

Heisman gives his role and opinions during the match as someone that has actually worked at the Deep Blue versus Kasparov matches. Focuses upon significance of event and Kasparov’s claim.

Hsu, Feng-Hsiung. Behind Deep Blue: Building the Computer That Defeated the World Chess

Champion. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002. Print.

A book by principal designer of Deep Blue reveals a complete story. It describes many events such as time before Deep Blue, Hsu’s journey and role, how the Deep Blue idea came, and Kasparov’s controversial claim.

IBM’S DEEP BLUE CHESS GRANDMASTER CHIPS (1999). Print.

A journal written by Feng-hsiung Hsu describes the intricacies of the Deep Blue project. He details how a chess machine works and evaluation and search functions of Deep Blue supplemented with captioned diagrams.

“IBM’s Deep Blue.” You Could Learn a Lot from Deep Blue. ADRIAN T. DAYTON, 2013.

Web. 2 Feb. 2013. <http://adriandayton.com/2010/04/
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This is a photograph of IBM’s Deep Blue supercomputer (outside).

IBM.”Garry Kasparov playing chess with IBM’s Deep Blue.” TheTech. The Tech

Museum of Innovation, n.d. Web. 2 Feb. 2013. <http://www.thetech.org/
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This is a photograph of Kasparov thinking in a game against Deep Blue.

iPhone 5. The Washington Post. The Washington Post, 12 Sept. 2012. Web. 3 Feb.

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This photograph shows an iPhone 5 (smartphone), a product of modern-day computing.

Jayanti, Vikram, dir. Game Over: Kasparov and the Machine. Prod. Hal Vogel. Narr. Marc Ghannoum. Perf. Joel Benjamin et al. THINKFilm, 2003. Film.

Vikram Jayanti offers a wonderful overview of the Kasparov-Deep Blue match focusing on the games of the Rematch as well as Kasparov’s reactions to the results of the games (interviews in documentary). This documentary showed an overview of the entire Rematch and the important accusation that Kasparov claimed the IBM Team to be cheating.

Kasparov, Garry. How Life Imitates Chess. New York: Bloomsbury USA, 2007. Print.

Kasparov’s book is in some sense an autobiography. Kasparov explains lessons he learned through his career such as how to think, make, decisions, prepare strategies, and anticipate. It also discusses the human psyche using the underlining principles of memory, intuition, and imagination. There are sections of the book dedicated to the Deep Blue versus Kasparov match.

Kasparov vs. Deep Blue. Forbes. Forbes, 3 May 2011. Web. 3 Feb. 2013.

<http://www.forbes.com/sites/davidewalt/2011/05/03/
kasparov-vs-deep-blue/>.

Photograph of Kasparov thinking when playing against IBM Deep Blue.

“Murray Campbell, Feng-hsiung Hsu, Thomas Anantharaman, Mike Browne and Andreas

Nowatzyk, after winning the Fredkin Intermediate Prize for Deep Thought’s
Grandmaster-level performance.” Chess Programming Wiki. Wikispaces, n.d.
Web. 3 Feb. 2013. <http://chessprogramming.wikispaces.com/
Andreas+Nowatzyk>.

Photograph of the IBM Deep Blue team. It displays all members that were part of Deep Blue’s development.

“Murray Campbell.” Wired. Wired, 17 May 2007. Web. 3 Feb. 2013.

<http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2007/05/murraycampbell_qa>.

Photograph of Murray Campbell, a computer scientist that was part of the Deep Blue development team.

“The Brain’s Last Stand.” Mind and Consciousness. Bogger, n.d. Web. 3 Feb. 2013.

<http://faculty.ycp.edu/~dweiss/phl221_intro/mind.htm>.

A photograph of an issue of Newsweek, “The Brain’s Last Stand”. Focusing on the Rematch of Deep Blue vs. Kasparov.

“The Deep Blue team.” Icons of Progress. IBM, n.d. Web. 3 Feb. 2013

<http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/ibm100/us/en/icons/deepblue/team/>.

Photograph of the IBM Deep Blue team. It displays all members that were part of Deep Blue’s development.

Secondary Sources:

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This image portrays an artificial brain, an appropriate representation of artificial intelligence and the human brain.

Albert Einstein. Einstein and the Pole Shift. WIkidot, n.d. Web. 3 Feb. 2013.

<http://www.2012hoax.org/einstein>.

This is a photograph of Albert Einstein, a German theoretical physicist.

Antonoff, Michael. “Curtains for Kasparov?” Popular Science Mar. 1996: 42+. Gale Power

Search. Web. 19 Sep. 2012.

This cover story discusses Kasparov’s actions and motives during the match. Antonoff claimed, “Kasparov is being conservative” during multiple matches which in his opinion this motive affected Kasparov’s final score.

“Artificial.intelligence.” Wikipedia. Wikipedia, n.d. Web. 3 Feb. 2013.

<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Artificial.intelligence.jpg>.

This illustration is a representation of artificial intelligence: a computer in the human brain.

“Artificial intelligence.” World Book Student. World Book ,2012. Web.19 September. 2012.

This encyclopedia entry defines key vocabulary relating to artificial intelligence. It describes concepts such as knowledge representation, reasoning, planning, problem, solving, and learning.

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Aung gives a complete overview of the success of Deep Blue. This article discussed the history and engineering of computer chess directed towards Deep Blue. This article portrays the story of early programmers in the mid-20th century to modern day.

Bringsjord, Selmer. “Chess Is Too Easy.” Technology Review. March/April 1998: 23-28. SIRS

Issues Researcher. Web. 20 Sep 2012.

This article describes new test of artificial intelligence: asking a computer to write a story. It also compares a concept of “Strong AI” vs. “Weak AI” and considers the computer’s potential for mindedness.

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Feb. 2013. <http://www.fridayfunfacts.com/2011/04/01/
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This photograph displays a replica of the Turk, a hoax chess computer.

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This website of the Computer History Museum displays a timeline of important events in the history of computers from the very beginning to 1980s. It also describes each event and its significance.

“David Levy at Pamplona 2009 (WCCC – CO – ACGC).” Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2009.

Web. 3 Feb. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
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A photograph of David Levy known for his claim that no computer could beat him from in ten years (1968-1978).

David Levy. ChessBase. ChessBase, 21 Dec. 2003. Web. 3 Feb. 2013.

<http://www.chessbase.com/newsdetail.asp?newsid=1372>.

A photograph of David Levy known for his claim that no computer could beat him from in ten years (1968-1978).

“Deep Blue.” IBM Chess Web Page. 25 Apr 1997: n.p. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 19 Sep   2012.

This article overviews the advancements in the supercomputer Deep Blue between the two matches against Kasparov. The major topics were origins of Deep Blue, the current version, and improvements.

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This article compares Deep Blue to Kasparov’s brain and analyzes their different characteristics. Then it portrays the philosophical ideas behind the differences between a brain and a computer.

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This illustration is a comic, which displays the idea of the Turing test through an interesting story.

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This diagram displays Moore’s law which governs computer process power growth rate: doubles every two years or eighteen months.

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This article examined the differences between the way Kasparov (humans) and Deep Blue (computers) played chess. This article discussed what are the strengths and weaknesses of humans and computers.

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This article goes beyond the turning point of Deep Blue versus Kasparov and details Deep Junior, a new chess computer. With tremendous improvement in technology, the perspective of this article varies from other sources.

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This article has two contrasting topics: the methods of computers and humans. It also portrays the Turing test and a timeline of computer evolution.

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Photograph of theoretical physicist, Michio Kaku.

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Neff describes the Y2K bug on computers and the science behind it (causes, effects, problems). The important concept derived from this article is the application and importance of computers to modern-day society.

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This article summarizes the events of Kasparov playing against IBM’s supercomputers. Peterson mentions important points as to what was learned from those events and also included opinions from IBM’s team and Kasparov.

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Peterson offers a wonderful description on what has been learned as a result of the Deep Blue-Kasparov match. This article focused on comparing the computation power of Deep Blue and psychological and intuitional aspects of Kasparov.

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A newspaper article describing Nate Silver’s book, The Signal and the Noise. Opinions of Silver on the causes of the result of the Deep Blue vs. Kasparov Rematch are presented.

Script Connector®, Corporation. SCRIPT CONNECTOR® Corporation. Script Connector,

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These photographs display sets of supercomputers (outside). Demonstrates the sizes and quality of modern supercomputers.

Sonas, Jeff. “Computer match performance against humans.” Chessbase. Chessbase,

n.d. Web. 3 Feb. 2013. <http://www.chessbase.com/
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These images display graphs of strength of chess-playing computers relative to humans in two different ways. One compares the rating growth and another displays the increase of a computer’s performance throughout a match against a human.

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This article focused on three important concepts of artificial intelligence and Kasparov-Deep Blue, the chess Turing test, achieving AI (in chess), and A New Era (Computer dominance over humans).

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Stover describes a brief history of Deep Thought, Deep Blue’s predecessor. He goes into detail describing game theory and Deep Thought’s processing patterns. This article anticipates the Deep Thought vs. Kasparov event.

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An image of a graphic representation of the Internet. This image shows how connected the world is via the Internet.

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This website displays a timeline of events that occurred that were relevant to Deep Blue and a text supplement was provided with it, explaining each event in detail.

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This newspaper article from the New York Times portrays a biography of Kasparov’s life describing his early life and also matches against Deep Blue, his accusation, and beyond Deep Blue.

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This photograph displays a replica of the Turk, a hoax chess computer.

“Terminator.” Fanpop. Fanpop, n.d. Web. 3 Feb. 2013. <http://www.fanpop.com/

clubs/terminator/images/297644/title/terminator-photo>.

This photograph displays a Terminator, a science fiction concept from the movie The Terminator. Displays a possible concept of singularity and artificial intelligence.

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SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 21 Sep 2012.

This article depicted artificial intelligence abstractly. Discusses ideas and theories of AI using scientific comparisons. It included predictions in the future and goals for development of AI.

“Turk reconstruction.” Wikipedia. Wikipedia, n.d. Web. 3 Feb. 2013.

<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Turk>.

This photograph displays a replica of the Turk, a hoax chess computer.

University of Cambridge. “What are Quantum Computers?” Qubit.org. University of

Cambridge, n.d. Web. 3 Feb. 2013.

This poster or illustration describes quantum computing including how it works, qubits, how to build quantum computers, and most promising technologies of quantum computing.

Wright, Robert. “Can Machines Think?.” Time. 25 Mar 1996: 50-58. SIRS Issues Researcher.

Web. 20 Sep 2012.

Wright’s article summarizes the debate on artificial intelligence with perspectives of scientists and philosophers. Different opinions of experts in the AI field are presented. Garry Kasparov also tells what he thinks of AI in his match against Deep Blue.